#p#副标题#e# 第一篇 Small But Wise【小而聪明】
On December 14, NASA1 blasted a small but mighty telescope into space. The telescope is called WISE and is about as wide around as a trashcan. Don"t let its small size fool you: WISE has a powerful digital camera, and it will be taking pictures of some the wildest objects2 in the known universe, including asteroids, faint stars, blazing galaxies3 and giant clouds of dust where planets and stars are bom.
“I"m very excited because we"re going to be seeing parts of the universe that we haven"t seen before, ” said Ned Wright, a scientist who directs the WISE project.
Since arriving in space, the WISE telescope has been circling the Earth, held by gravity in a polar orbit4( this means it crosses close to the north and south poles with each lap5). Its camera is pointed outward, away from the Earth, and WISE will snap a picture of a different part of the sky every 11 minutes. After six months it will have taken pictures across the entire sky.
The pictures taken by WISE won"t be like everyday digital photographs, however. WISE stands for “Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. ” As its name suggests, the WISE camera takes pictures of features that give off infrared radiation6.
Radiation is energy that travels as a wave. Visible light, including the familiar spectrum of light7 that becomes visible in a rainbow, is an example of radiation. When an ordinary digital camera takes a picture of a tree, for example, it receives the waves of visible light that are reflected off the tree. When these waves enter the camera through the lens, they"re processed by the camera, which then puts the image together.
Waves of infrared radiation are longer than waves of visible light, so ordinary digital cameras don"t see them, and neither do the eyes of human beings. Although invisible to the eye, longer infrared radiation can be detected as warmth by the skin.
That"s a key idea to why WISE will be able to see things other telescopes can"t. Not everything in the universe shows up in visible light. Asteroids, for example, are giant rocks that float through space — but they absorb most of the light that reaches them. They don"t reflect light, so they"re difficult to see. But they do give off infrared radiation, so an infrared telescope like WISE will be able to produce images of them. During its mission WISE will take pictures of hundreds of thousands of asteroids.
Brown dwarfs8 are another kind of deep-space object that will show up in WISE"s pictures. These objects are “failed” stars — which means they are not massive enough to jump start9 the same kind of reactions that power stars such as the sun. Instead, brown dwarfs simply shrink and cool down. They"re so dim that they"re almost impossible to see with visible light, but in the infrared spectrum they glow.
1. What is so special about WISE?
A It is small in size but carries a large camera.
B It is as small as a trashcan.
C Its digital camera can help astronomers to see the unknown space.
D Never before has a telescope carried a digital camera in space.
2. Which is NOT the synonym for the word “snap” in the third paragraph?
3. The camera on WISE
A is no different from an ordinary camera.
B does not see infrared radiation while the ordinary camera does.
C catches the infrared radiation while the ordinary camera does not.
D reflects light that human eyes can see.
4. Which of the following is NOT correct about “asteroids” according to paragraph 7 ?
A Asteroids float through space giving off visible light.
B Asteroids do not reflect light that reaches them.
C It is difficult to take asteroids" pictures by ordinary cameras.
D The WISE telescope can take pictures of asteroids
5. What is implied in the last paragraph?
A Brown dwarfs give off visible light.
B Brown dwarfs give off infrared radiation.
C Brown dwarfs are power stars like the sun.
D Brown dwarfs are impossible to see with the WISE telescope.#p#副标题#e#
1. C 2. A 3. C 4. A 5. B
第二篇： Gross national happiness
第三篇：Download knowledge directly to your brain (正确下载知识到你的大脑)
36：what have researchers been able to do with the help of the study
A:make a person know how to do something without learning
B:set up different learning patterns for different people
C:Enable people to learn kung fu instantly
D:Discover a person’s lea rning process in the brain
37：what helps a person to do a particular task better in visual perceptual learning
A:Testing B:Encouragement C: Repetition D: self- assessment
38:which of the following statements is true of the experiment participants
A:they were not told what to be learned in the experiment
B:they learned how to control MRL machines in the experiment
C:they were paid to take part in the experiment
D:they were not cooperative in the experiment
39:the finding of the study is most significant in that learning
A:is full of fun B: is visualized
C:becomes unnecessary D: happens unconsciously
40:who are most likely to benefit from the stability
A:senior people B: teenagers
C:musicians D: Athletes#p#副标题#e#
Solar Power without Solar Cells【没有太阳能电池的太阳能】
A dramatic and surprising magnetic effect of light discovered by University of Michigan1researchers could lead to solar power without traditional semiconductor-based solar cells.
The researchers found a way to make an “optical 1 , ” said Stephen Rand, a professor in the departments of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Physics and Applied Physics.
Light has electric and magnetic components. Until now, scientists thought the 2 of the maghetic field were so weak that they could be ignored. What Rand and his colleagues found is that at the right intensity, when light is traveling through a material that does not conduct electricity, the light field can generate magnetic effects that are 100 million times stronger than
3 expected. 4 these circumstances, the magnetic effects develop strength equivalent to a strong electric effect.
“This could lead to a new kind of solar cell without semiconductors and without absorption to produce charge separation, ” Rand said. “In solar cells, the 5 goes into a material, gets absorbed and creates heat. Here, we expect to have a very low heat load2. Instead of the light being absorbed, energy is stored in the magnetic moment3. Intense magnetization can be induced by intense light and then it is ultimately capable of providing a capacitive power 6 ”What makes this possible is a previously undetected brand of “optical rectification4, ” says William Fisher, a doctoral student5 in applied physics. In traditional optical rectification, light"s electric field causes a charge separation, or a pulling 7 of the positive and negative charges6 in a material. This sets up a voltage, similar to 8 in a battery.
Rand and Fisher found that under the right circumstances and in right types of materials, the light"s magnetic field can also create optical rectification. The light must be shone through7 a
9 that does not 10 electricity, such as glass. And it must be focused to an intensity of 10 million watts per square centimeter8. Sunlight isn"t this intense on its own, but new materials are being sought that would work at lower intensities, Fisher said.
“In our most recent paper, we show that incoherent light9 like sunlight is theoretically almost as 11 in producing charge separation as laser light is, ” Fisher said.
This new 12 could make solar power cheaper, the researchers say. They predict that with improved materials they could achieve 10 percent efficiency in 13 solar power to useable energy. That"s equivalent to today"s commercial-grade solar cells.
“To manufacture 14 solar cells, you have to do extensive semiconductor processing, ” Fisher said. “All we would need are lenses to focus the light and a fiber to guide it. Glass works for 15 It"s already made in bulk10, and it doesn"t require as much processing. Transparent ceramics might be even better. ”
1. A microscope B instrument C fiber D battery
2. A modifications B effects C applications D results
3. A frequently B privately C previously D formally
4. A Under B At C On D Over
5. A fight B electricity C chemical D magnetism
6. A plant B equipment C source D line
7. A down B up C together D apart
8. A this B that C those D it
9. A material B lens C meter D detector
10. A produce B convey C use D conduct
11. A remote B poor C effective D rare
12. A prototype B skill C technique D miracle
13. A converting B obtaining C delivering D transmitting
14. A compact B modem C durable D handy
15. A others B some C all D both
1. D 2. B 3. C 4. A 5. A 6. C 7. D 8. B
9. A 10. D ll. C 12. C 13. A 14. B 15. D
考试 答案 Solar Power without Solar Cells
1、A battery 2、D components
3、C ignored 4、C conduct
5、A equivalent 6、D light
7、D source 8、D apart
9、A that 10、B material
11、C intense 12、A as
13、D technology 14、C extensive